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The Role of Vanadium in Stainless Steel

Adddate:2016-3-5 16:49:12

I. EFFECT OF VANADIUM ON MICROSTRUCTURES AND HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL

1) Vanadium and iron form continuous solid solution, which strongly reduces 304L stainless steel seamless pipe in austenite phase zone.

2) Vanadium has strong affinity with carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, and exists mainly in the form of carbides or nitrides and oxides in steel.

3) The hardenability of steel can be adjusted by controlling austenitizing temperature to change the content of vanadium in austenite, the amount of undissolved carbides and the actual grain size of steel.

4) Because vanadium forms stable soluble carbides, the steel still keeps fine grain structure at higher temperature, which greatly reduces the superheat sensitivity of the steel.

II. EFFECT OF VANADIUM ON THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL

1) The permeability of high ferronickel alloy can be improved by adding vanadium after proper heat treatment. The magnetic coercivity of permanent magnet steel can be improved by adding vanadium.

2) Added enough vanadium (more than 5.7 times carbon). When carbon is immobilized in vanadium carbide, the stability of steel to hydrogen at high temperature and high pressure can be greatly increased. Its strong effect is similar to that of Nb, Ti and Zr. In stainless acid-resistant steel, vanadium can improve the intergranular corrosion resistance, but its effect is less significant than that of Ti and Nb.

3) When vanadium oxide occurs, it is unfavorable to the high temperature oxidation resistance of steel.

4) The deformation resistance of vanadium-bearing steel increases significantly at lower processing temperature.

5) Vanadium improves the weldability of steel.

III. EFFECT OF VANADIUM ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL

1) A small amount of vanadium refines the grain size and increases the toughness of the steel, which is especially beneficial to low temperature steel.

2) When higher vanadium content leads to the occurrence of aggregated carbides, the strength decreases, and the precipitation of carbides in crystals decreases the room temperature toughness.

3) When carbides are dispersed and precipitated by proper heat treatment, vanadium improves the high temperature endurance strength and creep resistance of steel.

4) Vanadium carbide is the hardest and most wear-resistant metal carbide. Dispersed vanadium carbides improve the hardness and wear resistance of tool steels.

IV. Application of Vanadium in Steel

1) It is widely used in low alloy steel, alloy structural steel, spring steel, bearing steel, alloy tool steel, high-speed tool steel, heat-resistant steel, hydrogen-resistant steel, low-temperature steel and other series.

2) Vanadium is one of the rich elements in China. Although its price is higher than that of Si, Mn, Ti and Mo, the amount of vanadium used in steel is generally less than 0.5% (except for high-speed tool steel), so it should be widely used. At present, vanadium has become one of the common elements in the development of new steel grades.

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